Karl Berntorp

Karl Berntorp
  • Biography

    Karl's research interests include statistical signal processing, Bayesian inference and learning, sensor fusion, and optimization-based control, with applications to automotive, transportation, navigation, positioning, and communication systems. Karl is an Associate Editor and member of the IEEE Technology Conferences Editorial Board.

  • Recent News & Events

    •  TALK    [MERL Seminar Series 2021] Prof. Thomas Schön presents talk at MERL entitled Deep probabilistic regression
      Date & Time: Tuesday, November 16, 2021; 11:00 AM EST
      Speaker: Thomas Schön, Uppsala University
      MERL Host: Karl Berntorp
      Research Areas: Dynamical Systems, Machine Learning
      Abstract
      • While deep learning-based classification is generally addressed using standardized approaches, this is really not the case when it comes to the study of regression problems. There are currently several different approaches used for regression and there is still room for innovation. We have developed a general deep regression method with a clear probabilistic interpretation. The basic building block in our construction is an energy-based model of the conditional output density p(y|x), where we use a deep neural network to predict the un-normalized density from input-output pairs (x, y). Such a construction is also commonly referred to as an implicit representation. The resulting learning problem is challenging and we offer some insights on how to deal with it. We show good performance on several computer vision regression tasks, system identification problems and 3D object detection using laser data.
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    •  NEWS    Rien Quirynen and Karl Berntorp to deliver keynote at IFAC NMPC 2021 Conference
      Date: July 12, 2021
      MERL Contacts: Karl Berntorp; Rien Quirynen
      Research Areas: Control, Dynamical Systems, Optimization
      Brief
      • MERL researcher Rien Quirynen will present work in collaboration with Karl Berntorp on "Uncertainty Propagation by Linear Regression Kalman Filters for Stochastic Nonlinear MPC" as a keynote speaker at the 7th IFAC Conference on Nonlinear Model Predictive Control 2021 on July, 12th. The paper is 1 out of 5 keynote presentations chosen among more than 50 accepted papers at the conference. An abstract of the talk can be found in the link below.
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  • Awards

    •  AWARD    Best Student Paper Award at the IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications
      Date: August 26, 2020
      Awarded to: Marcus Greiff, Anders Robertsson, Karl Berntorp
      MERL Contacts: Karl Berntorp; Marcus Greiff
      Research Areas: Control, Signal Processing
      Brief
      • Marcus Greiff, a former MERL intern from the Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden, won one of three 2020 CCTA Outstanding Student Paper Awards and the Best Student Paper Award at the 2020 IEEE Conference on Control Technology and Applications. The research leading up to the awarded paper titled 'MSE-Optimal Measurement Dimension Reduction in Gaussian Filtering', concerned how to select a reduced set of measurements in estimation applications while minimally degrading performance, was done in collaboration with Karl Berntorp at MERL.
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  • Internships with Karl

    • CA1726: Distributed Estimation for Autonomous Systems

      MERL is seeking a highly motivated and qualified intern to collaborate with the Control for Autonomy team in developing estimation methods with applications to multi-vehicle positioning. The ideal candidate is a PhD candidate with strong emphasis in estimation and control, and as interest and background in several of: bayesian inference, machine learning, maximum-likelihood estimation, optimization, distributed systems, and vehicle modeling and control. Good programming skills in MATLAB, Python, or C/C++ are required. The expected start of of the internship is in 2022 and flexible for a duration of 3-6 months.

    See All Internships at MERL
  • MERL Publications

    •  Pervej, M.F., Guo, J., Kim, K.J., Parsons, K., Orlik, P.V., Di Cairano, S., Menner, M., Berntorp, K., Nagai, Y., Dai, H., "Mobility, Communication and Computation Aware Federated Learning for Internet of Vehicles", arXiv, May 2022.
      BibTeX arXiv
      • @article{Pervej2022apr,
      • author = {Pervej, Md Ferdous and Guo, Jianlin and Kim, Kyeong Jin and Parsons, Kieran and Orlik, Philip V. and Di Cairano, Stefano and Menner, Marcel and Berntorp, Karl and Nagai, Yukimasa and Dai, Huaiyu},
      • title = {Mobility, Communication and Computation Aware Federated Learning for Internet of Vehicles},
      • journal = {arXiv},
      • year = 2022,
      • month = may,
      • url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2205.09529}
      • }
    •  Li, P., Pu, W., Berntorp, K., Liu, H., "Exploiting Temporal Relations on Radar Perception for Autonomous Driving", arXiv, April 2022.
      BibTeX arXiv
      • @article{Li2022apr,
      • author = {Li, Peizhao and Pu, Wang and Berntorp, Karl and Liu, Hongwu},
      • title = {Exploiting Temporal Relations on Radar Perception for Autonomous Driving},
      • journal = {arXiv},
      • year = 2022,
      • month = apr,
      • url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2204.01184}
      • }
    •  Berntorp, K., Chakrabarty, A., Di Cairano, S., "Vehicle Rollover Avoidance by Parameter-Adaptive Reference Governor", IEEE Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC), DOI: 10.1109/​CDC45484.2021.9683770, December 2021, pp. 635-640.
      BibTeX TR2021-151 PDF
      • @inproceedings{Berntorp2021dec,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Chakrabarty, Ankush and Di Cairano, Stefano},
      • title = {Vehicle Rollover Avoidance by Parameter-Adaptive Reference Governor},
      • booktitle = {IEEE Annual Conference on Decision and Control (CDC)},
      • year = 2021,
      • pages = {635--640},
      • month = dec,
      • doi = {10.1109/CDC45484.2021.9683770},
      • url = {https://www.merl.com/publications/TR2021-151}
      • }
    •  Menner, M., Berntorp, K., Di Cairano, S., "Automated Controller Calibration by Kalman Filtering", arXiv, November 2021.
      BibTeX arXiv
      • @article{Menner2021nov,
      • author = {Menner, Marcel and Berntorp, Karl and Di Cairano, Stefano},
      • title = {Automated Controller Calibration by Kalman Filtering},
      • journal = {arXiv},
      • year = 2021,
      • month = nov,
      • url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2111.10832}
      • }
    •  Yao, G., WANG, P., Berntorp, K., Mansour, H., Boufounos, P.T., Orlik, P.V., "Extended Object Tracking with Spatial Model Adaptation Using Automotive Radar", International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION), November 2021, pp. 1-8.
      BibTeX TR2021-138 PDF
      • @inproceedings{Yao2021nov,
      • author = {Yao, Gang and WANG, PU and Berntorp, Karl and Mansour, Hassan and Boufounos, Petros T. and Orlik, Philip V.},
      • title = {Extended Object Tracking with Spatial Model Adaptation Using Automotive Radar},
      • booktitle = {International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION)},
      • year = 2021,
      • pages = {1--8},
      • month = nov,
      • isbn = {IEEE Xplore},
      • url = {https://www.merl.com/publications/TR2021-138}
      • }
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  • Other Publications

    •  K. Berntorp, "Joint Wheel-Slip and Vehicle-Motion Estimation Based on Inertial, GPS, and Wheel-Speed Sensors", IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, Vol. 24, No. 3, pp. 1020-1027, May 2016.
      BibTeX
      • @Article{7247687,
      • author = {K. Berntorp},
      • title = {Joint Wheel-Slip and Vehicle-Motion Estimation Based on Inertial, GPS, and Wheel-Speed Sensors},
      • journal = {IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology},
      • year = 2016,
      • volume = 24,
      • number = 3,
      • pages = {1020--1027},
      • month = may
      • }
    •  Bjorn Olofsson, Karl Berntorp and Anders Robertsson, "A Convex Approach to Path Tracking with Obstacle Avoidance for Pseudo-Omnidirectional Vehicles," Tech. Rep., Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden, 2015.
      BibTeX
      • @Techreport{8232521,
      • author = {Olofsson, Bjorn and Berntorp, Karl and Robertsson, Anders},
      • title = {A Convex Approach to Path Tracking with Obstacle Avoidance for Pseudo-Omnidirectional Vehicles},
      • institution = {Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden},
      • year = 2015
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, "Particle Filter for Combined Wheel-Slip and Vehicle-Motion Estimation", 2015 American Control Conference, July 2015.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{berntorp2015acc,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl},
      • title = {Particle Filter for Combined Wheel-Slip and Vehicle-Motion Estimation},
      • booktitle = {2015 American Control Conference},
      • year = 2015,
      • address = {Chicago, IL},
      • month = jul
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp and Fredrik Magnusson, "Hierarchical Predictive Control for Ground-Vehicle Maneuvering", 2015 American Control Conference, July 2015.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{berntorp_magnusson2015acc,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Magnusson, Fredrik},
      • title = {Hierarchical Predictive Control for Ground-Vehicle Maneuvering},
      • booktitle = {2015 American Control Conference},
      • year = 2015,
      • address = {Chicago, IL},
      • month = jul
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, Bjorn Olofsson and Anders Robertsson, "Path Tracking with Obstacle Avoidance for Pseudo-Omnidirectional Mobile Robots Using Convex Optimization", 2014 American Control Conference, June 2014.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{bern_etal2014acc,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Olofsson, Bjorn and Robertsson, Anders},
      • title = {Path Tracking with Obstacle Avoidance for Pseudo-Omnidirectional Mobile Robots Using Convex Optimization},
      • booktitle = {2014 American Control Conference},
      • year = 2014,
      • address = {Portland, Oregon},
      • month = jun
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp and Jerker Nordh, "Rao-Blackwellized Particle Smoothing for Occupancy-Grid Based SLAM Using Low-Cost Sensors", 19th IFAC World Congress, August 2014.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{bern_jnifacwc,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Nordh, Jerker},
      • title = {Rao-Blackwellized Particle Smoothing for Occupancy-Grid Based SLAM Using Low-Cost Sensors},
      • booktitle = {19th IFAC World Congress},
      • year = 2014,
      • address = {Cape Town, South Africa},
      • month = aug
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, Anders Robertsson and Karl-Erik Arzen, "Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters with Out-of-Sequence Measurement Processing", IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, Vol. 62, No. 24, pp. 6454-6467, 2014.
      BibTeX
      • @Article{bernieeesp,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Robertsson, Anders and Arzen, Karl-Erik},
      • title = {Rao-Blackwellized Particle Filters with Out-of-Sequence Measurement Processing},
      • journal = {IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing},
      • year = 2014,
      • volume = 62,
      • number = 24,
      • pages = {6454--6467}
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, "Particle Filtering and Optimal Control for Vehicles and Robots", May 2014, Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden.
      BibTeX
      • @Phdthesis{berntorp2014phd,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl},
      • title = {Particle Filtering and Optimal Control for Vehicles and Robots},
      • school = {Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden},
      • year = 2014,
      • month = may
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, Bjorn Olofsson, Kristoffer Lundahl and Lars Nielsen, "Models and methodology for optimal trajectory generation in safety-critical road–vehicle manoeuvres", Vehicle System Dynamics, Vol. 52, No. 10, pp. 1304-1332, 2014.
      BibTeX
      • @Article{bernvsd,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Olofsson, Bjorn and Lundahl, Kristoffer and Nielsen, Lars},
      • title = {Models and methodology for optimal trajectory generation in safety-critical road–vehicle manoeuvres},
      • journal = {Vehicle System Dynamics},
      • year = 2014,
      • volume = 52,
      • number = 10,
      • pages = {1304--1332}
      • }
    •  Kristoffer Lundahl, Bjorn Olofsson, Karl Berntorp, Jan Aslund and Lars Nielsen, "Towards Lane-Keeping Electronic Stability Control for Road-Vehicles", 19th IFAC World Congress, August 2014.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{lundahl_etal2013ifacwc,
      • author = {Lundahl, Kristoffer and Olofsson, Bjorn and Berntorp, Karl and {\AA}slund, Jan and Nielsen, Lars},
      • title = {Towards Lane-Keeping Electronic Stability Control for Road-Vehicles},
      • booktitle = {19th IFAC World Congress},
      • year = 2014,
      • address = {Cape Town, South Africa},
      • month = aug
      • }
    •  Fredrik Magnusson, Karl Berntorp, Bjorn Olofsson and Johan Akesson, "Symbolic Transformations of Dynamic Optimization Problems", 10th International Modelica Conference, March 2014.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{magn_eal2014modelica,
      • author = {Magnusson, Fredrik and Berntorp, Karl and Olofsson, Bjorn and {\AA}kesson, Johan},
      • title = {Symbolic Transformations of Dynamic Optimization Problems},
      • booktitle = {10th International Modelica Conference},
      • year = 2014,
      • address = {Lund, Sweden},
      • month = mar
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, "Derivation of a Six Degrees-of-Freedom Ground-Vehicle Model for Automotive Applications," Tech. Rep., Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden, February 2013.
      BibTeX
      • @Techreport{bern_7627,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl},
      • title = {Derivation of a Six Degrees-of-Freedom Ground-Vehicle Model for Automotive Applications},
      • institution = {Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden},
      • year = 2013,
      • month = feb
      • }
    •  Jerker Nordh and Karl Berntorp, "pyParticleEst -- A Python Framework for Particle Based Estimation," Tech. Rep., Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden, March 2013.
      BibTeX
      • @Techreport{bern_7628,
      • author = {Nordh, Jerker and Berntorp, Karl},
      • title = {pyParticleEst -- A Python Framework for Particle Based Estimation},
      • institution = {Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden},
      • year = 2013,
      • month = mar
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, Bjorn Olofsson, Kristoffer Lundahl, Bo Bernhardsson and Lars Nielsen, "Models and Methodology for Optimal Vehicle Maneuvers Applied to a Hairpin Turn", 2013 American Control Conference, June 2013.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{bern_etal2012acc,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Olofsson, Bjorn and Lundahl, Kristoffer and Bernhardsson, Bo and Nielsen, Lars},
      • title = {Models and Methodology for Optimal Vehicle Maneuvers Applied to a Hairpin Turn},
      • booktitle = {2013 American Control Conference},
      • year = 2013,
      • address = {Washington, DC},
      • month = jun
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, Anders Robertsson and Karl-Erik Arzen, "Rao-Blackwellized Out-of-Sequence Processing for Mixed Linear/Nonlinear State-Space Models", 16th International Conference on Information Fusion, July 2013.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{bern_etal2013fusion,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Robertsson, Anders and Arzen, Karl-Erik},
      • title = {Rao-Blackwellized Out-of-Sequence Processing for Mixed Linear/Nonlinear State-Space Models},
      • booktitle = {16th International Conference on Information Fusion},
      • year = 2013,
      • address = {Istanbul, Turkey},
      • month = jul
      • }
    •  Kristoffer Lundahl, Karl Berntorp, Bjorn Olofsson, Jan Aslund and Lars Nielsen, "Studying the Influence of Roll and Pitch Dynamics in Optimal Road-Vehicle Maneuvers", 23rd International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks, August 2013.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{lund_etal2013iavsd,
      • author = {Lundahl, Kristoffer and Berntorp, Karl and Olofsson, Bjorn and {\AA}slund, Jan and Nielsen, Lars},
      • title = {Studying the Influence of Roll and Pitch Dynamics in Optimal Road-Vehicle Maneuvers},
      • booktitle = {23rd International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks},
      • year = 2013,
      • address = {Qingdao, China},
      • month = aug
      • }
    •  Bjorn Olofsson, Kristoffer Lundahl, Karl Berntorp and Lars Nielsen, "An Investigation of Optimal Vehicle Maneuvers for Different Road Conditions", 7th IFAC Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control, September 2013.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{olof_etal2013aac,
      • author = {Olofsson, Bjorn and Lundahl, Kristoffer and Berntorp, Karl and Nielsen, Lars},
      • title = {An Investigation of Optimal Vehicle Maneuvers for Different Road Conditions},
      • booktitle = {7th IFAC Symposium on Advances in Automotive Control},
      • year = 2013,
      • address = {Tokyo, Japan},
      • month = sep
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, Karl-Erik Arzen and Anders Robertsson, "Storage Efficient Particle Filters with Multiple Out-of-Sequence Measurements", 15th International Conference on Information Fusion, July 2012.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{bern_etal2012fusion,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Arzen, Karl-Erik and Robertsson, Anders},
      • title = {Storage Efficient Particle Filters with Multiple Out-of-Sequence Measurements},
      • booktitle = {15th International Conference on Information Fusion},
      • year = 2012,
      • address = {Singapore},
      • month = jul
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, Karl-Erik Arzen and Anders Robertsson, "Mobile Manipulation with a Kinematically Redundant Manipulator for a Pick-and-Place Scenario", 2012 IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control, October 2012.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{bern_etal2012ieeemsc,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Arzen, Karl-Erik and Robertsson, Anders},
      • title = {Mobile Manipulation with a Kinematically Redundant Manipulator for a Pick-and-Place Scenario},
      • booktitle = {2012 IEEE Multi-Conference on Systems and Control},
      • year = 2012,
      • address = {Dubrovnik, Croatia},
      • month = oct
      • }
    •  Jerker Nordh and Karl Berntorp, "Extending the Occupancy Grid Concept for Low-Cost Sensor Based SLAM", 10th International IFAC Symposium on Robot Control, September 2012.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{nordh_bern2012SYROCO,
      • author = {Nordh, Jerker and Berntorp, Karl},
      • title = {Extending the Occupancy Grid Concept for Low-Cost Sensor Based SLAM},
      • booktitle = {10th International IFAC Symposium on Robot Control},
      • year = 2012,
      • address = {Dubrovnik, Croatia},
      • month = sep
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, Karl-Erik Arzen and Anders Robertsson, "Sensor Fusion for Motion Estimation of Mobile Robots with Compensation for Out-of-Sequence Measurements", 11th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems, October 2011.
      BibTeX
      • @Inproceedings{bern_etal2011ccas,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl and Arzen, Karl-Erik and Robertsson, Anders},
      • title = {Sensor Fusion for Motion Estimation of Mobile Robots with Compensation for Out-of-Sequence Measurements},
      • booktitle = {11th International Conference on Control, Automation and Systems},
      • year = 2011,
      • address = {Gyeonggi-do, Korea},
      • month = oct
      • }
    •  Karl Berntorp, "ESP for Suppression of Jackknifing in an Articulated Bus," Tech. Rep., Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden, December 2008.
      BibTeX
      • @Techreport{bern_5831,
      • author = {Berntorp, Karl},
      • title = {ESP for Suppression of Jackknifing in an Articulated Bus},
      • institution = {Department of Automatic Control, Lund University, Sweden},
      • year = 2008,
      • month = dec
      • }
  • Videos

  • MERL Issued Patents

    • Title: "System and Method for Integer-Less GNSS Positioning"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Greiff, Marcus
      Patent No.: 11,340,356
      Issue Date: May 24, 2022
    • Title: "Adaptive Control of Autonomous or Semi-Autonomous Vehicle"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Di Cairano, Stefano; Menner, Marcel
      Patent No.: 11,327,492
      Issue Date: May 10, 2022
    • Title: "Friction Adaptive Vehicle Control"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Quirynen, Rien; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 11,254,315
      Issue Date: Feb 22, 2022
    • Title: "System and Method for Determining Friction Curve of Tire"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl
      Patent No.: 11,203,354
      Issue Date: Dec 21, 2021
    • Title: "System and Method for Controlling Lateral Motion of Vehicle"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Weiss, Avishai; Danielson, Claus; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 10,994,729
      Issue Date: May 4, 2021
    • Title: "System and Method for GNSS Ambiguity Resolution"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Weiss, Avishai; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 10,976,444
      Issue Date: Apr 13, 2021
    • Title: "Systems and Methods for Safe Decision Making of Autonomous Vehicles"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Di Cairano, Stefano; Ahn, Heejin
      Patent No.: 10,860,023
      Issue Date: Dec 8, 2020
    • Title: "Systems and Methods for Intention-Based Steering of Vehicle"
      Inventors: Kalabic, Uros; Berntorp, Karl; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 10,589,784
      Issue Date: Mar 17, 2020
    • Title: "System and Method for Controlling a Vehicle Under Sensor Uncertainty"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 10,408,638
      Issue Date: Sep 10, 2019
    • Title: "System and Method for Determining State of Stiffness of Tires of Vehicle"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 10,370,004
      Issue Date: Aug 6, 2019
    • Title: "System and Method for Controlling Motion of Vehicle in Shared Environment"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Okamoto, Kazuhide; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 10,324,469
      Issue Date: Jun 18, 2019
    • Title: "System and Method for Calibrating Parameters of Tires"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 10,093,321
      Issue Date: Oct 9, 2018
    • Title: "Methods and Systems for Path Planning Using a Network of Safe-Sets"
      Inventors: Danielson, Claus; Weiss, Avishai; Berntorp, Karl; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 10,012,988
      Issue Date: Jul 3, 2018
    • Title: "System and Method for Controlling Vehicle"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Arslan, Oktay
      Patent No.: 10,012,984
      Issue Date: Jul 3, 2018
    • Title: "System and Method for Determining State of Stiffness of Tires of Vehicle"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 10,011,284
      Issue Date: Jul 3, 2018
    • Title: "System and Method for Controlling Vehicle using Neural Network"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Liu, Ming-Yu; Weiss, Avishai
      Patent No.: 9,989,964
      Issue Date: Jun 5, 2018
    • Title: "System and Method for Controlling Motion of Vehicle"
      Inventors: Di Cairano, Stefano; Kalabic, Uros; Berntorp, Karl
      Patent No.: 9,915,948
      Issue Date: Mar 13, 2018
    • Title: "System and Method for Controlling Autonomous or Semi-Autonomous Vehicle"
      Inventors: Berntorp, Karl; Di Cairano, Stefano
      Patent No.: 9,568,915
      Issue Date: Feb 14, 2017
    See All Patents for MERL